Last Updated S022020


Unit Name Manufacturing Processes and Technology
Unit Code BME306S
Unit Duration 1 Semester

Bachelor of Science (Engineering)

Duration 3 years    

Year Level Three
Unit Creator / Reviewer Dr. Arti Siddhpura
Core/Sub-Discipline: Sub-discipline
Pre/Co-requisites BME204S, BME207S
Credit Points


Total Course Credit Points 81 (27 x 3)

Mode of Delivery Online or on-campus. 
Unit Workload (Total student workload including “contact hours” = 10 hours per week; 5 hours per week for 24 week delivery)
Pre-recordings / Lecture – 1.5 hours
Tutorial – 1.5 hours
Guided labs / Group work / Assessments – 2 hours
Personal Study recommended – 5 hours

Unit Description and General Aims

The objective in presenting this unit is to provide students with an in-depth knowledge of modern manufacturing processes and technologies, as required by the competitive industrial environment.

The subject matter covered in this unit will include: an overview of manufacturing fundamentals and the economic and technological considerations involved; a detailed examination of manufacturing processes such as forming, casting, welding, and joining; specifying cutting tool requirements, and identification and selection of the appropriate machine tool techniques; and, the selection of jigs and fixtures for a particular application, including an understanding of the economics involved.

Students will also have an opportunity to evaluate and understand the principles of metrology, where the focus will be on the most up-to-date information and best practices; and, they will be instructed on the principles, functions, applications, and programming aspects of CNC machines, and their importance in manufacturing.

Project work involving the different aspects of manufacturing technology and processes will also be a component of the unit requirements.

At the conclusion of this unit, students will have been imparted with the requisite knowledge to comprehend and utilise modern manufacturing processes and technologies.

Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this Unit, students are expected to be able to:

  1. Evaluate the fundamentals of manufacturing along with the economic and technological considerations involved.
    Bloom's Level 5
  2. Examines in-depth the principles and process characteristics of the metal forming, metal casting, and welding processes.
    Bloom's Level 4
  3. Explain the concepts related to powder metallurgy.
    Bloom's Level 2
  4. Evaluate the design aspects of cutting tools and the economics of machining.
    Bloom's Level 5
  5. Describe the science of metrology and its underpinning principles and methods.
    Bloom's Level 2
  6. Distinguish between traditional and non-traditional machining processes.
    Bloom's Level 4
  7. Detail CNC machining concepts, operational principles, and applications.
    Bloom's Level 4

Student assessment

Assessment Type When assessed Weighting (% of total unit marks) Learning Outcomes Assessed

Assessment 1

Type: Multi-choice Test 

Example Topic: Manufacturing basics, metal forming.

Students will complete a quiz with MCQ type answers to questions to demonstrate relevant knowledge of the basics of manufacturing and metal forming processes.

Due after Topic 3 15% 1, 2

Assessment 2

Type: Mid-Semester Test

Example Topic: Casting, welding, joining, plastic manufacturing, powder metallurgy.

Students will answer descriptive questions on casting, welding, joining, and powder metallurgy operations, to demonstrate an understanding of the processes and procedures involved.

Due after Topic 6 20% 2, 3

Assessment 3

Type: Project / Report

Example Topic: Machine tool technology, tools, jigs/fixtures, metrology.

Students will solve simple problems on or simulate tool geometry and wear, to demonstrate their comprehension of machine tool technology, metal cutting theories, and the selection and application of appropriate machine tools for the different manufacturing operation, or simple simulations using Solidworks for example.

Due after Topic 10 20% 4, 5

Assessment 4

Type: Exam

Example Topic: Manufacturing technology and processes.

Students will execute project work covering different aspects of manufacturing technology and processes. The assessor will specify the format in which the report will be prepared and the expected content.

Final Week 40% 1 to 7

Attendance / Tutorial Participation

Example: Presentation, discussion, group work, exercises, self-assessment/reflection, case study analysis, application.

Continuous 5% 1 to 7

Prescribed and Recommended Readings


Rajput, RK 2015, A Textbook of Manufacturing Technology (Manufacturing Processes), 2nd edn, Firewall Media, ISBN: 9788131802441

Groover, MP 2019, Fundamentals of modern manufacturing: Materials, processes and systems, 7th edn, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN: 9781119475217

DeGarmo, EP, Black, JT & Kohser, RA 2019, DeGarmo's  Materials and Processes in Manufacturing, 13th edn, Wiley & Sons, ISBN: 9780470924679

Kalpakjian, S & Schmid, SR 2020, Manufacturing Technology, 8th edn, Prentice Hall, ISBN: 9780135228609


Roy 1997, Processes and Materials of Manufacture, 4th edn, Prentice Hall, ISBN: 978-813180244

Journal, website

Notes and Reference Texts

Knovel library:
IDC Technologies
Other material advised during the lectures

Unit Content

Topic 1

Introduction to Manufacturing

1. Importance of manufacturing
2. Economic and technological considerations in manufacturing
3. Classification of manufacturing processes
4. Mechanization and automation
5. Materials and manufacturing processes for common items
6. Computer-aided manufacturing

Topic 2

Metal Forming

1. Elastic and plastic deformation, yield criteria (Mises’ and Tresca’s)
2. Principles and process characteristics
3. Basic principles of hot and cold working
4. Rolling, extrusion, forging, drawing, wire drawing, and spinning
5. Sheet metal operations – measuring, layout marking, shearing, punching, blanking, piercing, forming, bending, and joining
6. Design, lubrication, and defects in metal forming processes
7. Unconventional metal forming/High Energy Rate Forming (HERF) processes – explosive forming, electromagnetic, electro-hydraulic forming

Topic 3

Metal Casting

1. Fundamentals and principles of metal casting
2. Casting processes
3. Types of patterns and allowances
4. Sand casting – sand properties, constituents, and preparation
5. Mould and core making with assembly and its types
6. Gating system
7. Melting of metal, furnaces and cupola, metal pouring, fettling
8. Casting types – sand, shell-mould, CO2 mould casting, cold and hot box, investment, vacuum, pressure, die, centrifugal, investment, continuous, stir casting
9. Casting treatment, inspection, defects, and remedies

Topic 4

Welding and Joining

1. Classification of welding processes
2. Welding types – fusion welding, gas and arc welding, spot and seam welding, inert gas welding, TIG and MIG welding, submerged arc welding, resistance welding, thermit welding, CO2 shielded welding, pressure welding, solid phase welding, electro-slag welding, electron beam welding, laser beam welding, forge welding, friction welding
3. Welding equipment, weld joints – types, edge preparations
4. Weldability – designs, process, and metallurgy
5. Welding defects and remedies
6. Mechanical fastening (riveting), adhesive bonding, soldering, and brazing

Topic 5

Manufacturing of Plastic, Glass, Powder Metallurgy

1. Past, present, and future uses of plastics
2. Injection moulding, compression moulding, transfer moulding, blow moulding, rotational moulding, thermoforming, extrusion of the plastic section, welding of plastics
3. Resins and adhesives
4. Blow moulding and extrusion of glass
5. Powder metallurgy manufacturing process and its application and advantages

Topic 6 

Machine Tool Technology and Tools - 1

  1. Cutting tool – types, requirements, specification, and application
  2. Tool life definition, tool wear, and measurement
  3. Factors influencing tool life – speed, feed, depth of cut, material, cutting fluids
  4. Geometry of Single Point Cutting Tool – tool angel, tool angle specification system, ASA, ORS, and NRS
  5. Theories of metal cutting, mechanism of chip formation, concept of shear plane, types of chips, chip breakers, orthogonal and oblique cutting, stress and strain in the chip, velocity relations, power and energy requirements in metal cutting
  6. Parameters affecting machining cost

Topic 7

Machine Tool Technology and Tools - 2

  1. Classification, selection, and application of machine tools – lathe machines, milling machines, drilling machines, grinding machines, reaming machines, boring machines, broaching machines, lapping/honing machines, and shaping/slotting/planning machines
  2. Gear manufacturing – gear milling, standard cutters and limitations, gear hobbing, gear shaping, gear shaving, and gear grinding processes
  3. Surface finishing operations – honing, lapping, super finishing, polishing, buffing, process parameters and attainable grades of surface finish


Topic 8

Jigs and Fixtures

1. Jigs and fixtures - locating and clamping devices and their principles
2. Applications of jigs and fixtures
3. Jigs bushes, drilling jigs, milling fixtures, turning fixtures, boring and broaching fixtures, welding fixtures
4. Materials for jigs and fixtures
5. Economics of jigs and fixtures

Topic 9


1. Measurement, linear and angular measuring instruments
2. Clampers, screw gauge, sine bar, auto-collimator, comparator – mechanical, electrical, optical, surface finish, and its measurements
3. Micro and macro deviation
4. Factors influencing surface finish and evaluation of surface finish
5. Advances in metrology

Topic 10

Non-Traditional Machining Processes

1. Need for non-traditional machining and principles
2. Laser beam equipment and operation
3. Detailed overview of non-traditional machining processes - plasma arc machining, electro-chemical machining, ultrasonic machining, abrasive jet machining, water jet machining, electron beam machining, electron discharge machining

Topic 11

CNC Machining

1. CNC machines – introduction and principles of operation
2. Major elements, functions, applications
3. Controllers, open loop and closed loop systems
4. Vertical machining centres and horizontal machining centres – constructional details, special features
5. Coordinate measuring machines
6. CNC machine maintenance
7. G, M Codes, Basic CNC programming

Topic 12

Unit Review

(Distribute Case Study in Week 10). In the final week, students will have an opportunity to review the contents covered so far. Opportunity will be provided for a review of student work and to clarify any outstanding issues. Instructors/facilitators may choose to cover a specialized topic if applicable to that cohort.

Software/Hardware Used


  • Software: N/A

  • Version: N/A

  • Instructions:  N/A

  • Additional resources or files: N/A


  • N/A