Last Updated S012021


Unit Code MEE607
Unit Duration 12 weeks

Master of Engineering (Electrical Systems )

Duration: 2 years

Year Level Two
Unit Creator / Reviewer Prof Akhtar kalam ( Ian Bitterlin / Steve Steyn)
Core/Elective: Core
Pre/Co-requisites None
Credit Points


Masters total course credit points = 48

(3 credits x 12 ( units )+12 credits (Thesis))

Mode of Delivery Online or on-campus. 
Unit Workload

10 hours per week:

lecture - 1 hour

Tutorial Lecture - 1 hours

Practical / Lab - 1 hour ( where applicable )

Personal Study recommended - 7 hours ( guided and unguided )


Unit Description and General Aims

In this unit, students will acquire in depth knowledge on the fundamental mathematical and theoretical principles to analyse and define Power Quality parameters, the skills to model these phenomena in the time-domain and then to use field data in the benchmarking of PQ requirements against an international or national standard. Students will learn how to mitigate a specific PQ concern and conduct a techno-economic validation of the solution.

This unit covers all aspects of power system engineering from transmission and distribution level analyses to end-user problems. The unit aims to ensure that power engineering students can develop solutions to power quality problems of electrical machines and power systems, from gaining knowledge of modelling, simulation and measuring techniques for transformers, machines, capacitors and power systems.

Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of this Unit, students are expected to be able to:

  1. Demonstrate understanding of theoretical knowledge on electrical power quality.

Bloom’s Level 2

  1. Measure first-order harmonic distortion in harmonic current and linear source impedance.

Bloom’s Level 5

  1. Design and develop power system simulation models in the time-domain to study PQ issues commonly occurred in actual power networks.

Bloom’s Level 6

  1. Develop advanced waveform analysis methods in a mathematical software package using simulation data

Bloom’s Level 6

  1. Evaluate PQ analysis results based on applicable standards, codes of practice and legislation.

Bloom’s Level 5

  1. Plan, and propose the most appropriate approaches to mitigate the PQ issues.

Bloom’s Level 6

Student Assessment

Assessment Type

(e.g. Assignment - 2000 word essay (specify topic)

Examination (specify length and format))

When assessed

(eg After Topic 5)
Weighting (% of total unit marks) Learning Outcomes Assessed

Assessment 1

Type: Multi-choice test / Group work / Short answer questions / Role Play / Self-Assessment / Presentation

Topic examples: Power quality concepts: IEEE definition of what a voltage waveform event of transient nature constitute i.e. a voltage dip and swell. Steady-state voltage quality parameters.

After Topic 5 20% 1, 2

Assessment 2 

Type: Report / Research / Paper / Case Study / Site Visit / Problem analysis / Project / Professional recommendation

Example: Report (Midterm Project)
[This will include a progress report; literature review, hypothesis, and proposed solution with concept workings]
Word length: 1000

Topic examples: International standards in PQ, the measurement and benchmarking of PQ in an international and national (student residency) context.

After Topic 8 25% 1, 2, 3

Assessment 3

Type: Report (Final Project)

[If a continuation of the midterm, this should complete the report by adding sections on: workings, implementation, results, verification/validation, conclusion/challenges and recommendations/future work. If this is a new report, all headings from the midterm and the final reports must be included.]

Word length: 2000

Topic examples: Case study 1: Analysis, reporting, benchmarking and interpretation of real field data (student or EIT supply field data). Case study 2 based on a site where a PQ concern exists: Voltage dips/swells and then a selected parameter from voltage magnitude regulation, voltage unbalance, voltage flicker, voltage THD including individual harmonics.

After Topic 11 35% 1- 6

Assessment 4

Practical Participation

TType: May be in the form of quizzes, class tests, practical assessments, remote labs, simulation software or case studies

Example: Advanced analysis of PQ data specific application of voltage waveform conditioning (active and passive) such harmonic filtering, dip and swell mitigation, flicker and unbalance mitigation, reactive power applied in improving voltage magnitude regulation. Techno-economic evaluation.

Final Week 15% 3

Attendance / Tutorial Participation

Example: Presentation, discussion, group work, exercises, self-assessment/reflection, case study analysis, application.

Continuous 5%       -


Prescribed and Recommended readings

Required Textbook(s)

     R. Dugan, M. McGranaghan, S. Santoso, and H.W. Beaty, Power System Harmonics, 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Education, 2012

Reference Materials

  • Handbook of Power Quality, Angelo Bagginni (ed), Wiley, 2008
  • Understanding Power Quality, Math Bollen, Wiley-IEEE Press, 2000
  • Eskom Handbook on Quality of Supply
  • IDC / EIT notes and Reference texts as advised.
  • Other material advised during the lectures

Unit Content

One topic is delivered per contact week.


Topic 1

What Electrical Power Quality Is About

  1. PQ parameters
  2. International PQ standards (focus on IEC 61000-4-30)
  3. Root-cause of voltage dips, swells and fast transients i.e. spikes.
  4. Root-cause of poor voltage regulation, asymmetry, flicker and voltage waveform distortion.


Topic 2

Why Power Quality Is No Longer Perfect

  1. Why grid-integrated renewable energy is a concern to voltage quality.
  2. The electricity revolution: microgrids and smart distribution networks
  3. Supra-harmonics: What and from where.
  4. Introduction to time-domain modelling


Topic 3

Theory and Application in Voltage Dips - 1

  1. The measurement and reporting of voltage dips
  2. Analysis of voltage dip data
    1. Voltage waveform event analysis (dips, swells, fast transients, spikes)
    2. Voltage waveform incidents (time aggregation of dips and swells)


Topic 4

Theory and Application in Voltage Dips - 2

  1. Benchmarking of voltage dip performance
  2. Phase-angle jumps during voltage dips
  3. Practical analysis:         
    1. Modelling
    2. Case study on field data


Topic 5

Theory of Steady-State Voltage Waveform Quality

  1. The measurement and reporting of voltage waveform quality
  2. Waveform analysis
    1. Asymmetry: Theory and calculation of voltage unbalance factors
    2. Flicker: The IEC flicker meter: IEC 61000-4-15
    3. Voltage waveform distortion: from Fourier to voltage THD


Topic 6

Application of Steady-State Voltage Waveform Quality

  1. Nonsinusoidal power definitions: The IEEE 1459-2010
  2. Power factor definitions: the arithmetic, trigonometric, effective and positive sequence PF.
  3. Resonant amplification of voltage harmonics
  4. Practical analysis:      
    1. Modelling
    2. Case study on field data


Topic 7

Harmonic, Flicker and Unbalance Emission - 1

  1. On the localisation of sources of waveform harmonic distortion: theoretical and metrology considerations
  2. The propagation of voltage harmonics, - flicker and unbalance.


Topic 8

Harmonic, Flicker and Unbalance Emission - 2

  1. Measurement uncertainty of harmonics
  2. Assessment of harmonic, unbalance and flicker emission.
  3. Practical analysis:   
    1. Modelling
    2. Case study on field data

Topic 9

Mitigation of Poor Voltage Quality - 1

  1. Conductor resistance, cross-section and impedance
  2. Neutral conductor amperage
  3. K-rated distribution transformers
  4. Isolation transformers


Topic 10

Mitigation of Poor Voltage Quality - 2

  1. Voltage dip mitigation
  2. Unbalance mitigation
  3. Flicker mitigation


Topic 11

Mitigation of Poor Voltage Quality - 3

  1. Passive filters: harmonics
  2. Active filters: harmonics


Topic 12

Project and Revision

In the final week students will have an opportunity to review the contents covered so far. Opportunity will be provided for a review of student work, to clarify any outstanding issues, and to work on finalising the major assessment report.

Engineers Australia

The Australian Engineering Stage 1 Competency Standards for the Professional Engineer, approved as of 2013. This table is referenced in the mapping of graduate attributes to learning outcomes and via the learning outcomes to student assessment.

Stage 1 Competencies and Elements Competency
1. Knowledge and Skill Base
1.1 Comprehensive, theory based understanding of the underpinning natural and physical sciences and the engineering fundamentals applicable to the engineering discipline.
1.2 Conceptual understanding of the mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics, and computer and information sciences which underpin the engineering discipline.
1.3 In-depth understanding of specialist bodies of knowledge within the engineering discipline.
1.4 Discernment of knowledge development and research directions within the engineering discipline.
1.5 Knowledge of engineering design practice and contextual factors impacting the engineering discipline.
1.6 Understanding of the scope, principles, norms, accountabilities and bounds of sustainable engineering practice in the specific discipline.
2. Engineering Application Ability
2.1 Application of established engineering methods to complex engineering problem solving.
2.2 Fluent application of engineering techniques, tools and resources.
2.3 Application of systematic engineering synthesis and design processes.
2.4 Application of systematic approaches to the conduct and management of engineering projects.
3. Professional and Personal Attributes
3.1 Ethical conduct and professional accountability.
3.2 Effective oral and written communication in professional and lay domains.
3.3 Creative, innovative and pro-active demeanour.
3.4 Professional use and management of information.
3.5 Orderly management of self and professional conduct.
3.6 Effective team membership and team leadership.

Software/Hardware Used


  • Software: PowerFactory; PSSE

  • Version: N/A

  • Instructions:  N/A

  • Additional resources or files: N/A


  • N/A