|Unit Name||POWER ENGINEERING PRACTICE|
|Unit Duration||1 Term (online) or 1 Semester (on-campus)|
Graduate Diploma of Engineering (Electrical and Instrumentation in Oil and Gas)
Duration: 1 year
Master of Engineering (Electrical and Instrumentation in Oil and Gas)
Duration 2 years
|Unit Coordinator||Jim Russell and Akhtar Kalam|
Grad Dip total course credit points = 24
(3 credits x 8 (units))
Masters total course credit points = 48
(12 credits (Thesis) + 3 credits x 12 (units))
|Mode of Delivery||Combination of modes: Online synchronous lectures; asynchronous discussion groups, videos, remote and cloud-based labs (simulations); web and video conferencing tutorials. High emphasis on personal and group self-study.|
Student workload including “contact hours” = 10 hours per week:
Lecture 1 hour
Tutorial Lecture 1 hours
Practical / Lab 1 hour (where relevant)Personal Study recommended - 7 hours
Unit Description and General Aims
This unit is concerned with the principles of Oil and Gas Facility Power Engineering.
Underlying principals and theory are addressed. This includes the complexities of Power Generation, Distribution, Lighting, Occupational, Health and Safety (OH&S) along with specific subjects such as Earthing, Black Start, Equipment Rooms, Load Shedding and Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas.
The unit addresses in a readily accessible format processes by which power is generated with special emphasis on alternative renewable energy generation sources such as solar, wind, biomass and fuel cells. This unit takes into account the many challenges faced due to excess power supply but with a decrease in demand. The unit addresses the global pressures on replacing fossil fuel plants to renewables and the need for cheap and affordable power.
On successful completion of this Unit, students are expected to be able to:
- Understand and apply principles of Power System Engineering to Onshore and Offshore Oil and Gas facilities.
- Apply disciplined and constructive engineering process to enhance power system and OH&S issues
- Evaluate engineering practices and demonstrate in depth understanding of Electric Motors, Controls and Protection, Lighting and Small Power, Uninterruptable and Emergency Power Systems
- Address power quality issues
- Analyse and apply earthing principles for Onshore and Offshore Oil and Gas facilities
- Apply Engineering practices for Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas
(e.g. Assignment - 2000 word essay (specify topic)
Examination (specify length and format))
(eg Week 5)
(% of total unit marks)
Learning Outcomes Assessed
Word length: n/a
Topic examples: Basic Electrical Circuits
After Topic 5
1, 2, 3
Type: Report (Midterm Project)
[This will include a progress report; literature review, hypothesis, and proposed solution with concept workings]
Word length: 2000
Topic examples: Describe how it would be economically feasible for a staffed offshore platform to be powered by non-combustion generated power.
After Topic 8
2, 3, 4
Type: Report (Final Project)
[A complete report with sections on: literature review, hypothesis, proposal, concept workings, implementation, results, verification/validation, conclusion/challenges and recommendations/future work.]
Word length: 4000
Topic examples: Waste disposal and management of hazardous electrical and electronic equipment OR Describe and justify scenarios where a central generation system and inter-platform distribution system (a grid) would be justified for a multi-platform offshore system OR What is a specific piece of knowledge you have learned that requires special modification to be applied to a research station in Antarctica, and why?
After Topic 13
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
May be in the form of quizzes, class tests, practical assessments, remote labs, simulation software or case studies: E.g. Review a recent revenue application, interested party submissions, consultant reports and the Australian Energy Regulator’s final determination for a network company and write down the key issues raised. As part of the review, consider the service performance incentive scheme, efficiency benefit sharing schemes, the negotiation framework, and the pricing methodology.
Prescribed and recommended readings
Newnes Electrical Power Engineer's Handbook (2nd Edition) (ISBN 978-0-7506-6268-0)
Agrawal, K.C. Industrial Power Engineering Handbook (ISBN 978-0-7506-7351-8)
- Power Engineering Journal; IEEE Power and Energy Magazine; IEEE Transactions on Power Systems; International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems. These are peer-reviewed journals. Other relevant peer-reviewed journals will be advised.
- http://www.power-eng.com, http://www.ieee-pes.org
- IDC notes and Reference texts as advised.
- Kalam and D.P. Kothari, Power System Protection and Communications, New Age International (P) Ltd Publishers, 2010 (ISBN 978-81-224-2741-7)
- Mohan, et al., Power Electronics - Converters, Applications, and Design, 1st ed, John Wiley & Sons, 2003
- Devold, Oil and gas production handbook: An introduction to oil and gas production, transport, refining and petrochemical industry, ABB, 2013. (ISBN 978-82-997886-3-2)
- Other material advised during the lectures
One topic is delivered per contact week, with the exception of part-time 24-week units, where one topic is delivered every two weeks.
Topics 1 and 2
Generation Fundamentals, Alternatives and its Distribution
- Fundamentals of Power Engineering for Onshore Refineries, Onshore Oil and Gas Processing Plant Offshore Facilities (Platforms, Subsea and Floating Production & Operating Facilities (FPSO). “On-grid” and “off-grid”. On-grid means the facility will have a grid as back-up, with the ability to start-up, a source of income due to generation, etc. Off-grid means the facility must be in perpetual island mode, with the need to do their own synchronisation, and black start. Some offshore facilities will be on-grid, and some onshore facilities will be off-grid. FPSOs are a little bit of a cross-over, because when they steam into port/dry-dock, they change from off-grid to on-grid.
- Electricity Supply Basics and Theory, DC and AC Power, Single and Three Phase Power, Electrical Laws, AC Network Analysis, DC Analysis, Laplace Transform, Frequency Response, Capacitors, Inductors, Resistive Circuits, Phasors Algebra, Power System Transients, highlighting different frequencies and voltages around the world?
- Thermal Power Generation, Gas Turbine Generators, Diesel engine generators, Subsea Cable Power Supply.
- Alternatives - Solar, wind and Ocean & Tidal wave generation, Fuel Cells (SCADA, CP etc.)
- HV/MV/LV Power Transmission and Distribution Onshore and Offshore, Transformers, Electrical Networks and Switchgear.
- Motor Control Centres (MCC) and Equipment Rooms.
- OH&S - Personal Safety, Electrical Hazards, Arc Flash, Working on HV Systems, Safety Locks, Permits, Labelling and Safety Equipment.
- HV/MV/LV Electrical Cables, impact on data cables, which are generally millivolt or microvolt
- Loads and Utility Ancillary Services
- other discipline involvement such as mechanical engineering interfaces with turbo-machinery
Topics 3 and 4
Electric Motors, Controls and Protection, Lighting and Small Power
- Introduction to AC Rotating Machines and Systems
- Principles of Electromechanical Energy Conversion; energy efficiency and associated economics
- Fundamentals of Electrical AC and DC Motors
- Control Circuits and Protection for Electrical Motors and Systems
- Smart Electrical Control Centres
- Variable Speed Drives
- High Power Motors
- Synchronous Machines
- Lighting – Fundamentals, Circuits, Energy Saving Lights, Emergency and Evacuation Lighting.
- Small Power Circuits
- Electronic Components for Power and Control
Topics 5 and 6
Uninterruptable Power Supplies (UPS), Emergency Power Generators, Black Start Generators, Power Management and Energy Efficiency
- UPS Requirements , Emergency Loads and Load Calculations, UPS Power Sources
- Battery Types and Sizing Calculations, Charging and Maintenance.
- Battery Rooms
- Emergency Power Supply Switching
- Diesel Powered Emergency Generators, Reliability and Testing Requirements,
- Black Start Procedures and Requirements
- Load Shedding / Management
- Energy efficiency: What it is, what it provides.
- Climate Change Strategies
- Carbon Pollution Reduction - include waste heat recovery units (WHRUs) attached to the stacks of combustion devices that drive generators. This reduces carbon pollution by meaning a separate furnace is not needed, but impacts the performance of the generator and integrates with the process, making safety and general management more complex and interactive
- Energy efficiency strategies.
- McKinsey’s Report
Topics 7 and 8
Power Quality, EMI, Earthing and Surge Protection
- Introduction to Power Quality Formulations, Standards and Improvement of Power Quality
- Harmonic Modelling of Induction Machines
- Noise and Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) from electrical circuits
- Principles of controlling noise and EMI in electrical and electronic circuits
- Introduction to Earthing System Functions, TN/TT/IT Earthing Networks, Multiple Earthed Neutral (MEN) Link
- Electric Shock and Risk
- Soil Resistivity and Electrode Resistance Measurement
- Electrode Resistance Calculation
- Earthing of Offshore and Onshore Facilities
- Lightning Protection
- Surge Protection
Topics 9 and 10
Electrical Equipment (Ex) in Hazardous Areas
- The Nature of Fire and Explosion
- Hazardous Area Classification and Responsibilities
- Modifications to Plant
- Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas Standards
- Design and Manufacture of Ex Protected Equipment
- Electrical Equipment for Hazardous Areas Explosion Protection Concepts, Equipment Protection Levels (EPLs)
- Selection of Certified Equipment, ATEX, IEC Ex, proposed use of IEC 61010 as basis for global standardisation as per IECEE
- Installation, Testing, Maintenance and Inspection of Ex Equipment in Hazardous Areas
- Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas (EEHA) - Training and Competency
- Hazardous Area Installations Verification Dossiers
- The Use of Aluminium in Hazardous Areas
- Manage mercury in areas that use aluminium
- Waste disposal of hazardous electrical equipment
- Future Electrical Technology Advances
- Noise Limitation
- Weight Control
- Cathodic Protection Systems
- Submersible Pumps
Project and Revision
In the final weeks students will have an opportunity to review the contents covered so far. Opportunity will be provided for a review of student work and to clarify any outstanding issues. Instructors/facilitators may choose to cover a specialized topic if applicable to that cohort.
Completing this unit will add to students professional development/competencies by:
- Fostering the personal and professional skills development of students to:
- Be adaptable and capable 21st century citizens, who can communicate effectively, work collaboratively, think critically and innovatively solve complex problems.
- Equipping individuals with an increased capacity for lifelong learning and professional development.
- Planning and organising self and others
- Instilling leadership qualities and a capacity for ethical and professional contextualization of knowledge
- Enhancing students’ investigatory and research capabilities through:
- Solving complex and open-ended engineering problems
- Accessing, evaluating and analysing information
- Processes and procedures, cause – effect investigations
- Developing the engineering application abilities of students through:
- Labs / practical / case studies / self-study (where applicable)
Web & Video conferencing software
Students will be provided with Blackboard Collaborate (or similar) for video and web conferencing. This will allow them to attend lectures, interact with lecturers and fellow students, and use the Remote Lab facility. Students will be required to download the latest version of Java and .NET in order to use these packages.
For ease of communicating with peers and lecturers, installation of this package is recommended.
Word, PowerPoint and Excel
It is recommended that students install at least a 2007 version of the Microsoft Office. Older versions will work, but sometimes create issues with file compatibility. If individuals are reluctant to use these, they can also use Open Office (www.openoffice.org).
As students are co-operating with people from throughout the world with a multitude of different PCs, it is recommended that they have good quality up-to-date virus detection software installed. The free version of AVG is sufficient. A thorough automated scan of computers at least once a week is recommended.
Learning Management System
EIT uses a state-of-the-art learning management system (Moodle) for lecturing and interacting with lecturers and fellow students. Students can chat, socialize, and collaborate on projects with similarly motivated and enthusiastic course participants.
Computing resource requirements
Students’ computers should have an Intel Core Duo CPU and 2 Gigabytes of RAM. Hard disk space available should be at least 2 Gigabytes free. If necessary the built-in hard drive can be augmented with an inexpensive USB drive. No particular special graphics card is required. The operating system should be Windows with Windows 7 Service Pack 1 as a minimum.
An ADSL Internet connection with a minimum speed of 128 kbps down and 64 kbps up is recommended.
Good quality headset and low cost web cam
Students will require a good quality stereo headset with analogue or USB connectors. In addition, a low-cost USB webcam is recommended. Students should budget in the order of $30 for a headset and $20 for a webcam. This will vary from country to country.
For difficulties with other online materials the lecturer should be contacted. Technical material will be accessible 24/7 through the online portal.