|Unit Name||Process Safety Lifecycle Management|
|Unit Duration||1 Term (online) or 1 Semester (on-campus)|
Graduate Diploma of Engineering (Electrical and Instrumentation in Oil and Gas)
Duration: 1 year
Master of Engineering (Electrical and Instrumentation in Oil and Gas)
Duration: 2 years
|Unit Coordinator||Fraser Maywood|
Grad Dip total course credit points = 24
(3 credits x 8 (units))
Masters total course credit points = 48
(12 credits (Thesis) + 3 credits x 12 (units))
|Mode of Delivery||Combination of modes: Online synchronous lectures; asynchronous discussion groups, videos, remote and cloud-based labs (simulations); web and video conferencing tutorials. High emphasis on personal and group self-study.|
Student workload including “contact hours” = 10 hours per week:
Lecture 1 hour
Tutorial Lecture 1 hours
Practical / Lab 1 hour (where relevant)Personal Study recommended - 7 hours
Unit Description and General Aims
This unit provides sufficient depth of understanding of the principles and practical application of functional safety from initial hazard identification through design, configuration, testing, installation, commissioning and maintenance of a safety control system and associated instrumentation in the context of the oil and gas industry.
The unit will concentrate on functional safety and safety instrumented systems (SIS) used in the industry in the broader context of overall process safety. The aim is to ensure participants gain a wider understanding and thus are better placed to provide balanced practical advice on achieving process safety through the application of instrumented safety.
The underlying principles of process safety (hazard identification, risk assessment, layers of protection analysis) and functional safety lifecycle (FSLC) activities will provide the student with an understanding of how to systematically identify and apply these principles to SIS used in industry (eg package plant machinery protection, process / emergency shutdown systems, fire and gas system design). Practical aspects of the FSLC development and overall functional safety management will be addressed, including operation and maintenance activities.
On successful completion of this Unit, students are expected to be able to:
- Identify principles of process safety to onshore and offshore oil & gas facilities including industry regulatory and standards requirements and common hazard management processes and techniques.
- Identify and apply principles of FSLC management in accordance with IEC 61511 (and IEC 61508) to SIS used on onshore and offshore oil & gas facilities.
- Analyse and apply sound engineering practices and demonstrate in-depth understanding of individual functional safety lifecycle
(e.g. Assignment - 2000 word essay (specify topic)
Examination (specify length and format))
(eg Week 5)
(% of total unit marks)
Learning Outcomes Assessed
Word length: n/a
Topic examples: Fundamental concepts of process safety
After Topic 5
Type: Report (Midterm Project)
[This will include a progress report; literature review, hypothesis, and proposed solution with concept workings]
Word length: 1000
Topic examples: Safety requirement specification for an offshore production facility for a SIS or as specified by the lecturer.
After Topic 8
1, 2, 3
Type: Report (Final Project)
[If a continuation of the midterm, this should complete the report by adding sections on: workings, implementation, results, verification/validation, conclusion/challenges and recommendations/future work. If this is a new report, all headings from the midterm and the final reports must be included.]
Word length: 4000
Topic examples: Functional safety management plan development
After Topic 12
1, 2, 3,
May be in the form of quizzes, class tests, practical assessments, remote labs, simulation software or case studies: E.g. Safety instrumented function design verification calculations for several SIFs (including optimisation based on actual maintenance data gathered) or as directed by the lecturer
Prescribed and recommended readings
- A. Kletz, Process Plants - A Handbook for Inherently Safer Design, Taylor and Francis, London, 1998. ISBN 978-1-56032-619-9
- Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems, IEC standard 61508-1 to 7,
- Functional Safety - Safety instrumented systems for the process industry sector. Parts 1 and 3, IEC standard 61511, 2002. (OR AS 61511 or BS EN 61511 or ANSI/ISA S84.01:2004)
- ISO14121-2 Practical examples of Risk Assessments
- AS 4024 Safety of Machinery Standard
- EEMUA Publication 222 Guide to the application of IEC 61511 to safety instrumented systems in the UK process industries.
- ISA TR84.00.02 (various parts as selected by course developer / lecturer) on further Guidance on the application of IEC 61511 to safety instrumented systems, 2010, International Society for Automation (ISA)
- J. Smith and K.G.L. Simpson, Safety critical systems handbook: a straightforward guide to functional safety: IEC 61508 (2010 edition) and related standards, 2010
- Layer of Protection Analysis: Simplified Process Risk Assessment (A CCPS Concept Book)
- M. Goble and H. Cheddie, Safety Instrumented Systems Verification: Practical Probabilistic Calculations, 2010
- Number of peer-reviewed journals and websites (advised during lectures) [some examples below]:
- Control Engineering
- EIT notes
One topic is delivered per contact week, with the exception of part-time 24-week units, where one topic is delivered every two weeks.
Topics 1 and 2
Process Safety Overview
- What goes wrong and why
- Hazard identification, risk assessment
- Safety maturity model, ALARP and tolerable risk
- System safety vs. safety management system
- System safety process
- Systematic failure avoidance: Quality control, design codes, Preventative maintenance (RBI, RCM), etc.
- Random hardware failure, failure modes (including unrevealed unsafe failures), average probability of failure on demand, test intervals and coverage (Random failure avoidance: redundancy, diagnostics, etc.)
- Hazard reduction and layers of protection
- Risk evaluation models – qualitative vs. quantitative, deterministic vs. stochastic, probabilistic, risk analysis model, developing accident scenarios and initiating events, event trees, risk profiles, consequence determination, uncertainty
- Risk analysis techniques (process safety analysis, cause and consequence analysis, root cause analysis, bow-tie analysis
- Advantages and dis-advantages of SIL/LOPA studies
- Organisational safety culture
- Current state of process safety and key challenges
Legislative and Compliance Framework
- Typical legislative requirements
- US OSHA PSM Regulation
- US EPA / RMP Regulations
- European Union – Seveso I, II, and III, REACH
- UK COMAH / CIMAH
- Norway / North Sea (Safety Case)
- Australia / New Zealand (Major Hazard Facilities)
- Australia NOPSEMA (Safety Case)
- Codes and standards
- Safety critical elements and performance standards
Topics 4 and 5
IEC 61511 (and IEC 61508) Overview
- Background to the standard
- Process risk, residual risk, tolerable risk
- Separation of process control and process safety
- Equipment Under Control (EUC) and its application, detection, logic action and safe state definition
- Safety functions and safety-related systems
- Safety integrity levels (high and low demand)
- Systematic capability (refer IEC 61508)
- Different voting arrangements and their consequences
- SIL levels, device types and architectural constraints: fault tolerance /redundancy – differences between IEC 61511 and IEC 61508
- IEC 61511 Clauses 5 and 10.3
- Safety software requirements – dedicated SRS, V-Model
- Avoidance of systematic failures and spurious trips
- Functional safety assessments
- Functional safety management overview (including planning, verification, validation, functional safety assessment, function testing, management of change, competency and certification) – differences between project personnel and end-user
- Application of functional safety to Oil & Gas industry and special applications: High Integrity Pressure Protection ystems, Burner Management Systems (ie sequential logic), drilling equipment, batch processes, fire and gas
- Legacy issues and ‘proven in use’ solutions
- When to conduct SIL studies in relation to other safety studies and level of design maturity
- Key inputs: risk criteria analysis: calibrating company risk matrices for SIL studies, safety instrumented function identification, HAZAN / HAZOP studies, project documentation
- Assumptions (eg generally semi-quantitative technique used)
- Conducting the workshop
- Independent review
- Re-analysis during operations
Safety Instrumented Function Design and Verification
- Identifying SIF elements and safe state
- Reliability block diagrams and fault modelling (FTA, Markov modeling, simplified equations)
- Failure modes, diagnostic coverage, safe failure fraction, failure data sources & assumptions
- Proven in use assessment
- Proof test coverage, preventative maintenance requirements
- Redundancy and common mode failure
- Tools and techniques
- Probability failure on demand calculations examples
Safety Requirements Specification
- Separation of SIF and non-SIF
- SIL determination output and summary
- Project functional requirements
- Design basis; scope, context, assumptions, clarifications, definitions etc.
- SIF characterisation details including: Description, Instances, P&ID, SAFE Chart, Case, Hazardous Event, Causes, Consequences, Process Safety State, Other LOPs Considered, Target SIL, Risk Reduction Factor, Safety-Critical, Demand Mode, Proof Test Interval, MTTFSP, MTTR, Other Special Considerations.
Detailed Design Considerations
- Selection of the logic solver hardware supplier for the SIS, required components and architecture
- Selection of field devices and other components of the SIS
- I/O allocation
- Definition of third party interfaces (including HMI)
- Calculations (power consumption, heat dissipation, fault current, cable sizing, etc.)
- Prototype testing of typical loops
- Production of drawings to enable system to be built
- Production of documents and drawings to enable the system to be installed
- Development of project Software Quality Plan
- Selection of software tools and programming language
- Detailed software design (including definition of program structure, required software modules, communication drivers, diagnostics usage, alarm handling, voting arrangements, overrides, interfaces, etc)
Functional Safety Management
- Planning – division of responsibility across the safety lifecycle, typical documentation suite
- FSM plan covering concept, strategy, scope, activities, competency, personnel, roles and responsibilities, organisation, independence, processes (ISO 9000 type and FSM specific), planning, documentation, verification and validation plans, monitoring, review and audits
- Guidance on specific elements: realisation, testing, installation, validation, commissioning, formal safety assessment
- Continual improvement, audit and review, reporting.
Operations and Maintenance
- Planning and plans for operations
- Periodic testing procedures (on-line and off-line)
- Preventative maintenance, field instrumentation and logic solver diagnostics, system alarms)
- Integration with maintenance management system (PMs, work orders, failure history, backlog management)
- Managing system integrity, competency, change management
- System support (expertise, tools, test equipment, spares, repair and test cycle),
- Optimising maintenance (failure data, process shutdown capture, data analysis, hazard review, test interval and coverage)
Project and Revision
In the final weeks students will have an opportunity to review the contents covered so far. Opportunity will be provided for a review of student work and to clarify any outstanding issues. Instructors/facilitators may choose to cover a specialized topic if applicable to that cohort.
Completing this unit will add to students professional development/competencies by:
- Fostering the personal and professional skills development of students to:
- Be adaptable and capable 21st century citizens, who can communicate effectively, work collaboratively, think critically and innovatively solve complex problems.
- Equipping individuals with an increased capacity for lifelong learning and professional development.
- Planning and organising self and others
- Instilling leadership qualities and a capacity for ethical and professional contextualization of knowledge
- Enhancing students’ investigatory and research capabilities through:
- Solving complex and open-ended engineering problems
- Accessing, evaluating and analysing information
- Processes and procedures, cause – effect investigations
- Developing the engineering application abilities of students through:
- Labs / practical / case studies / self-study (where applicable)
Web & Video conferencing software
Students will be provided with Blackboard Collaborate (or similar) for video and web conferencing. This will allow them to attend lectures, interact with lecturers and fellow students, and use the Remote Lab facility. Students will be required to download the latest version of Java and .NET in order to use these packages.
For ease of communicating with peers and lecturers, installation of this package is recommended.
Word, PowerPoint and Excel
It is recommended that students install at least a 2007 version of the Microsoft Office. Older versions will work, but sometimes create issues with file compatibility. If individuals are reluctant to use these, they can also use Open Office (www.openoffice.org).
As students are co-operating with people from throughout the world with a multitude of different PCs, it is recommended that they have good quality up-to-date virus detection software installed. The free version of AVG is sufficient. A thorough automated scan of computers at least once a week is recommended.
Learning Management System
EIT uses a state-of-the-art learning management system (Moodle) for lecturing and interacting with lecturers and fellow students. Students can chat, socialize, and collaborate on projects with similarly motivated and enthusiastic course participants.
Computing resource requirements
Students’ computers should have an Intel Core Duo CPU and 2 Gigabytes of RAM. Hard disk space available should be at least 2 Gigabytes free. If necessary the built-in hard drive can be augmented with an inexpensive USB drive. No particular special graphics card is required. The operating system should be Windows with Windows 7 Service Pack 1 as a minimum.
An ADSL Internet connection with a minimum speed of 128 kbps down and 64 kbps up is recommended.
Good quality headset and low cost web cam
Students will require a good quality stereo headset with analogue or USB connectors. In addition, a low-cost USB webcam is recommended. Students should budget in the order of $30 for a headset and $20 for a webcam. This will vary from country to country.
For difficulties with other online materials the lecturer should be contacted. Technical material will be accessible 24/7 through the online portal.